No, ants do not have lungs. They are too small to accommodate lungs and a respiratory system similar to ours. Instead, they breathe through a tracheal respiratory system.
In this article, we’ll learn more about the ant respiratory system as we discuss the following:
- What are lungs
- How ants breathe
- Why ants don’t have lungs
What Are Lungs?
The lungs are a pair of vital organs in the respiratory system of vertebrates. They’re responsible for bringing fresh oxygen in, and carbon dioxide waste out, of the body. Simply put, the lungs allow for gas exchange and respiration.
How Do Ants Breathe?
Ants breathe through a tracheal system. As the name implies, this system consists of a network of tubes called trachea. These tubes deliver oxygen directly to the cells of their bodies. 
In this system, the air enters and exits the ant’s body through tiny holes called spiracles. These holes allow for the passive diffusion of gas.
Each of these spiracles connects to tracheae which branch across the ant’s body. Again, these tracheae deliver oxygen straight to the cells. They cut off the need for a circulatory system that facilitates gas transport.
At the end of these branches are special cells called tracheoles. This is where oxygen is dissolved and diffused into the adjacent cells.
Carbon dioxide goes through the same process but in reverse. It diffuses out of the cell, goes through tracheae, and is released through the spiracles.
Why Don’t Ants Have Lungs?
Ants don’t have lungs because they never had the evolutionary need to grow them. A tracheal system provides them an energy-efficient and passive way means to respire. Growing lungs will just cost them an immense amount of energy and resources.
Ants are also too small to accommodate lungs and all the necessary parts that come along with them. For one, ants don’t have a compatible circulatory system for gas transport.
That said, a theory suggests that ants may be small because of the tracheal system. This theory states that oxygen intake is directly proportional to insect size. Meaning, the higher the oxygen intake, the larger the insect. With this, the tracheal system limits the growth of ants as they can’t take in large doses of oxygen. 
So there’s somewhat of a chicken and egg scenario. In order to grow bigger, ants may need to grow lungs or at least develop their current respiratory system. But to do so, they should also be big enough to accommodate the necessary changes.
Do Ants Need Oxygen?
Yes, ants do need oxygen. As animals, ants respire aerobically and need oxygen to fuel their metabolic processes. Without it, their cells become deprived of energy and eventually die.
Can Ants Suffocate?
It’s unlikely for ants to suffocate under normal conditions. As long as there’s oxygen they can simply rely on the passive diffusion of gas.
That said, they can suffocate if their spiracles get blocked. Soapy water and insecticides, for example, prevent the intake of oxygen.
Can Ants Breathe Underwater?
No, ants can’t breathe underwater. Water clogs their spiracles and they can’t take in oxygen.
Do Ants Have Blood?
Ants don’t have blood. Instead, they have hemolymph, a circulatory fluid found in invertebrates. This fluid serves as the medium of transport for hormones and nutrients. Unlike blood, it does not contain red blood cells.
See this article to learn more about the ant circulatory system.
Summary: Do Ants Have Lungs?
To summarize, no ants do not have lungs. Due to their size, ants aren’t able to accommodate lungs and a respiratory system like ours. Instead, they have a tracheal respiratory system. This system uses spiracles and tracheal branches that extend throughout their bodies.
These branches can directly deliver oxygen to the cells. They bypass the need for a transport system. Furthermore, the tracheal respiratory system also relies on passive diffusion. Therefore, it’s overall an energy-efficient way to respire.